Biala, H. Cerecetto, G. Edwards, G. Froldi, G. Gervasini, and F. Komada Received Apr 4; Accepted May 3. Copyright © Nidal A. Qinna et al.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The successful use of herbal combinations in managing diseases or conditions over a single herb has lead us to evaluate the anti-dyslipidemic properties of the combination of the artichoke leaves extract, turmeric extract, prickly pear dried leaves PPL and garlic extract versus each one alone in two different hyperlipidemic animal models.
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In conclusion, short term, as well as long term, treatment using the combination of artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic extract prevents dyslipidemia; partially through inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase. Introduction Dyslipidemia can be defined as the elevation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol serum levels while maintaining low serum levels of high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol.
This imbalance is considered a high-risk factor for inducing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases CVD. CVD is now considered the most common cause of death in both western and eastern countries [ 1 ]. Traditionally, natural remedies were used to overcome such imbalance in lipids metabolism and are claimed to be useful in controlling hyperlipidemia and associated pathologies [ 2 ]. Plants such as artichoke Cynara scolymus is an important component of the Mediterranean diet and it is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds, inulin, fibers, and minerals [ 3 ].
Traditionally, artichoke leaves were used for a variety of diseases [ 4 ]. It has been used to treat dyspepsia mainly because of its choleretic effect that is associated with increased bile formation [ 5 ]. In addition, artichoke extract has been found to exhibit antioxidant properties in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes [ 4 ] and has lipid lowering anti aging forschung [ 36 — 8 ]. Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric, is a rhizomatous perennial plant from the family Zingiberaceae [ 910 ].
Curcumin has been identified as the principle active component of turmeric that is responsible for many pharmacological properties [ 11 ] including anti-inflammatory, powerful antioxidant activity [ 12 ], and cancer-preventive properties [ 13 ]. Also, it lowers blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels by lowering oxidative stress in diabetic rats [ 1415 ].
Several studies have reported that curcumin has hypolipemic action in rats [ 16 ]. It lowers serum cholesterol levels in diet induced hyperlipidemia [ 17 ] and triglycerides in alcohol induced toxicity [ 18 ].
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It also increases cholesterol fecal excretion [ 19 ] and induces changes in gene expression involved in cholesterol homeostasis [ 20 ]. Prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica is a tree like cactus from the family Cactaceae [ 21 ]. The dried leaves of prickly pear cactus have been considered as one of the functional food by embracing essential ingredients, such as amino acids, taurine, carbohydrates, vitamin C, minerals, and soluble fibers [ 22 ].
Prickly pear owns well-known antidiabetic and lipid lowering properties [ 23 ]. Also, it is very useful in obesity, alcohol-induced hangover, colitis, diarrhea, and benign prostatic hypertrophy BPH [ 24 ]. Many uses of cladodes leaves of cactus pear have been reported and utilized for their hypolipidemic properties [ 212425 ]. Evidence showed that cactus pear reduces cholesterol levels in human and modify LDL composition [ 22 ]. Garlic Allium sativum from the family Alliacae is used as spice and medicinal herb [ 26 ].
It is used as raw, cooked, dried, and in form of tablets [ 27 ]. Garlichas protective actions against cardiovascular diseases.
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Numerous studies suggest that garlic can normalize serum lipids, enhances fibrinolytic activity, and reduces blood pressure [ 28 ]. The successful use of herbal combinations in treating or managing diseases or conditions over a single herb [ 2930 ] has led us to evaluate the antidyslipidemic properties of the combination of the above natural extracts versus each one alone in two different hyperlipidemic models [ 31 ].
Furthermore, in order to study the mechanism of action of each constituent, each product was tested in inhibiting the activity of HMG-CoA reductase enzyme. The long-term objective of this study, however, is enhancing the use of these natural extracts in lowering serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides, and increasing serum HDL in order to reduce CVD and their adverse consequences.
Materials and Methods 2. The natural extracts were used as supplied and no attempts were carried to evaluate their compositions.
Animals were kept for 2 weeks to allow acclimatization to the animal facility before starting the experiments. Hyperlipidemia Induction Using Pluronic F Pluronic F is a nontoxic, hydrophilic nonionic surfactant that anti aging forschung administered parenterally in rodents to induce reversible hyperlipidemia [ 32 — 34 ]. Pluronic F solution was prepared by dissolving the corresponding dose in cold normal saline and kept in the refrigerator overnight for complete dissolution.
Twenty-four hours before the experiment, only water was offered to the rats. The controls were injected with normal saline only.
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During the 48 h of the experiment, blood samples at 0, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h were drawn. At each time point, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia and blood samples were directly collected ovap suisse anti aging the heart.
Blood samples were allowed to clot for 15 minutes and then centrifuged.
For this method of induction, rats were divided in two anti aging forschung group 1: control, fed with the normolipidemic diet, and group 2: fed with the cholesterol based formula. All groups had free access to water.
After 10 days of feeding, fasting rats were sacrificed under anesthesia. Blood samples were taken directly from the heart and processed as previously described.
Antihyperlipidemic Effect of the Natural Extracts To investigate the effect of the natural extracts to prevent the elevation of blood lipids, animals were divided into 8 groups with eight rats in each group. These doses correspond to the human recommended daily doses of 1. At the beginning of each experiment, rats were treated orally using an intragastric tube and they had free access to water and normal diet.
Group 1 served as negative control. For 2 weeks, rats were orally treated with the previously described doses and had free access to water and normal diet. Twenty-four anti aging forschung before the last sample treatment, hyperlipidemia was induced using a single i.
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Group 1 was injected with normal saline only. At the last day of the study, all animals were kept fasting except for water for 24 h before blood samples were collected directly from the heart and processed as previously described. Statistical Analysis Results are expressed as mean ± S. M standard error of the mean. P values less than 0.
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Results 3. However, the elevation in triglyceride level was much higher than cholesterol and LDL Figure 1. Table 1.